Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function through movement and exercise, manual therapy, education and advice.

Occupational Therapy

Occupational therapy interventions helps people recovering from injury to regain skills, and providing supports when experiencing physical and cognitive changes. It typically provides an individualized evaluation & customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach their goals.

Speech therapy

Speech-language pathologists can assess speech and language development and to treat speech and language disorders. They can also help people with swallowing disorders that can result from the brain injury caused by ANE.

Augmentative and alternative communication service

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) includes all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas. Special augmentative aids, such as picture and symbol communication boards and electronic devices, are available to help people express themselves. This may increase social interaction, school performance, and feelings of self-worth.

Vision Therapy

Vision therapy is a non-surgical and customized program of visual activities designed to correct certain vision problems and/or improve visual skills. Ataxia is a common side effect of ANE due to the brain injury. People with ataxia have problems with coordination because parts of the nervous system that control movement and balance are affected.

Serial Casting

Serial casting is a procedure that helps children and adults improve their range of movement. The procedure is the application of a fiberglass cast with padding to hold a part of the body in a position that will stretch a tight muscle. The cast is applied weekly and will stay on for 5-10 days maintaining the muscle in a stretched position. Sequential casts are done for up to three to six weeks to progressively stretch the joint and increase range of motion.


Serial casting is often used in conjunction with Botox intervention to gain muscle length and reduce tone. Botox therapy is used to treat patients with spasticity that restricts function or causes pain. Botox is a nerve impulse ”blocker.” It attaches to nerve endings and prevents the release of chemical transmitters, which activate muscles.


The term orthosis refers to an externally applied device intended to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal systems. An orthosis may be recommended as one of a range of measures to manage the effects of altered muscle tone and associated abnormal postures. The prevention of persistently abnormal postures reduces the risk of musculoskeletal adaptations that lead to fixed structural deformities. Orthoses are often used in conjunction with other interventions such as physical therapy (physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy) or botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment.